The main economic use of this pine is of its edible, oil-rich seeds (neoza in Hindi), which are harvested by knocking the cones from the trees in autumn and early winter. In some areas, local mountain clans and villages own rights to the seeds and control the harvest, which is exported to markets on the plains of northern India. In traditional systems, sufficient cones are usually left on the tree to ensure that some seed is available for natural regeneration. Trees that do not produce enough cones any more are cut as firewood and new trees are planted from seeds to maintain stock. In other areas, harvesting rights are held by private contractors: in these areas all cones are collected (Peltier and Duffay 2009). The wood is used locally for light construction and carpentry. This species is comparatively rare in horticultural cultivation (despite good hardiness) and mainly restricted to collections in arboreta. Its bark is reminiscent of that of the Lacebark Pine (P. bungeana), but somewhat less decorative; the seeds of P. gerardiana are much larger and better for consumption.