Pinus cembroides subsp. orizabensis D.K.Bailey


Endemic to a small part of eastern Mexico where its habitat is being encroached by agricultural activities

Associated Names:


Eastern Mexico in the Sates of: Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz.

The population is thought to be in decline due to clearance for agriculture.

Habitat and Ecology

The region is semiarid, with scattered, small extinct volcanos. The altitudinal range is 2100–2800m.; the soils are mainly of volcanic origin. It forms open woodland or sometimes dense, small forests with pure stands or, more commonly, it is mixed with Juniperus deppeana and/or J. flaccida. Occasionally Pinus pseudostrobus is present, or the Pinyon pines are mixed with Quercus sp. Contrary to claims by Bailey (1983), Bailey & Hawksworth (1988) and Perry (1991), P. cembroides subsp. cembroides does occur in the same area and may be locally sympatric with it, e.g. near Ajalpán in Puebla. The climate of the region is characterized by a long dry season from November to May, but relatively abundant precipitation (800-900 mm) occurs during the summer. Due to high altitude frost may occur in December–January. Phenology: not recorded, but presumably pollen is dispersed during May-June

Human Uses

The edible seeds are the main use, sold in local markets. The wood is probably only in use as firewood, but larger trees may yield some timber of limited application for building or furniture

Conservation Status

Global status

Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)

Global rationale

Both the extent of occurrence and area of occuoancy (AOO) based on near comprehensive sampling of 25 collections from 12 localities fall below the threshold for Endangered. There is a continuing decline due to land clearance at least in parts of the AOO as has been observed by several visitors, including the assessor.

Global threats

This subspecies occurs in areas where agriculture is expanding and woods are cleared. There is for this reason a continuous decline of area of occupancy (AOO) and likely of mature trees.