Pinus armandii var. mastersiana (Hayata) Hayata


Endemic to two mountain ranges in Taiwan where over-exploitation for its high quality wood has depleted the populaton considerably

Associated Names:


Taiwan (Mt. Alishan, Mt. Yushan).

The overall population trend is uncertain but a decline is suspected

Habitat and Ecology

In mountains, occasional in woodland dominated by Tsuga chinensis, Pinus taiwanensis, understorey with Acer morrisonense, Rhododendron rubropilosum, Ilex spp. and Viburnum parvifolium. Also found in Chamaecyparis spp. forest. Observed at altitudes between 1800 and 2800 metres above sea-level.

Human Uses

Exploited for its timber, but used only locally.

Conservation Status

Global status

Endangered B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)

Global rationale

Previously, the Conifer Specialist Group had assessed this taxon as EN under A1c, using the older version 2.3 (1994) now superseded by version 3.1 (2000). Given its small extent of occurrence and area of occupancy and presumably a continuing decline where exploitation has not ceased, it meets criteria B1 and B2 for Endangered.

Global threats

This variety of 'soft pine' is the only representative of Pinus subsection Strobi native to Taiwan and the timber of pines in this subsection is very much superior for high grade carpentry and furniture making. As a result, the resource has been overexploited and the population has dwindled.

Conservation Actions

At present, several remaining stands are protected within Yushan National Park.