The Indochina Threatened Conifer Region focuses on mainland Southeast Asia and includes Myanmar, Thailand (as far south as the Isthmus of Kra), Lao PDR, Cambodia and Việt Nam. Central physical features of this area include the Annamite Mountains that form the border between Lao PDR and Việt Nam, the Hoang Lien Mountains in northwestern Việt Nam and the extensive karst limestone areas of northern Việt Nam and the adjoining areas of China. Climates are variable depending on altitude and distance from the coast with some areas experiencing subtropical climates with distinct wet and dry seasons while others are more seasonal. Vegetation types range from subtropical evergreen forests to subalpine bogs and meadows. The conifer flora is very diverse with at least 15 genera and 35 species present. Almost one third are endemic and at least 20 are globally threatened. Notable endemic species include Pinus krempfii and Xanthocyparis vietnamensis. Several taxa are represented by small disjunct subpopulations with the main populations found in other Regions, sometimes at considerable distances. Principal threats in this region include conversion of forests for agriculture, forestry and urbanisation, overexploitation for timber, illegal logging and wildfires.
A recently described five needle pine, currently only known from a small area of northwestern Vietnam. It is threatened by selective felling but has not yet been evaluated for the IUCN's Redlist. It is likely to be assessed as Critically Endangered due to its very restricted distribution and an ongoing decline. Read full species entry >
A rare pine with a disjunct distribution in the central and southern Annamite Mountains in Lao PDR and Vietnam. Deforestation and logging in some parts of its range have led to an assessment of Near Threatened. Read full species entry >
One of the most unusual pine species with broad flattened needles. It is endemic to a small area of the southern highlands of Việt Nam and has undergone an historic decline as a consequence of war, fire and the conversion of forests to pine plantations. Although the majority of stands are now within a major national park, infrastructure developments within the park have led to further habitat fragmentation. Read full species entry >
This species is only known for certain from karst limestone areas of three counties in Yunnan where it has been heavily exploited for its timber, despite the ruggedness of the terrain. Lower altitude sites are also indirectly impacted by the clearance of the valleys and lower slopes for agriculture. Read full species entry >
In China and Việt Nam this species is threatened due to logging and habitat loss as a result of forest clearance for agriculture and grazing Read full species entry >
In China and Việt Nam this variety is threatened due to logging and habitat loss as a result of forest clearance for agriculture and grazing. Read full species entry >
Taiwania has an unusual disjunct distribution with the main populations along the border between Yunnan and Myanmar (Gaoligong Mountains) and on Taiwan. There is also a small population in Việt Nam. Historical logging has reduced and fragmented the global population; forest conversion and fires threaten the Vietnamese locality. Read full species entry >